THE AGAMIC TRADITION AND THE ARTS
Treatment of Mah¡bh£tas
Relation to Ma¸·alas and Arts
two great master-scriptures which deal with the science of space snd forms
are the Ëgamas and the
álpa-á¡stras, corroborative and correspondent to each other.
However, we can deduce an element of difference between these two
scriptural streams. While the áilpa works set forth the details concerned with structural forms
alone, not disowning the concept of mathematical space and time, the Ëgamic
scriptures copiously deal with both the conceptual and structural forms
based on the concepts of space and time.
to the broader classification of the forms, as found in the áaiv¡gamas, there are two kinds of forms, one conceptual and the
other structural or sculptural.
The conceptual forms are strictly meant for the purpose of meditation and
intuition alone. They are not subjected to iconographisation.
Most of the forms whose lineaments
are described in the á¡kta Ëgamas
and in the Ëgamas pertaining to the Spanda
or Trika system are conceptual
alone. The Tantrar¡ja Tantra specifically
states that the forms of Nity¡ Dev¢s and of other Deities except that of
ár¢ Lalit¡ or R¡jar¡je¿var¢
or Bhuvane¿var¢ should not be sculpted and installed. These forms are to
be mentally visualized or contemplated based on the respective ghy¡na
¿lokas. Even in the áaiv¡gamas we have this kind of restriction.
The V¡tul¡gama sates:
are two kinds of conceptual form pertaining to Lord áiva- one is known as
adhvan-m£rti and the other is
known as aÀ¶a-m£rti. The
concept of adhvan is common to
South Indian áaivism, Kashmir áaivism and á¡ktism. In a distorted
pattern. this concept figures in some of the P¡µcar¡tra
To dwell upon the philosophical significance and import, of the concept of
adhvan is to go beyond the scope
of the present paper and therefore only relevant and important details
concerned with the mah¡bh£tas
are presented and discussed here.
pada, var¸a, bhvvana, tattva
and kal¡ are
the six kinds of adhvan which constitute the cosmic-cum-amophic body of Lord áiva.
In His adhvan form, Lord áiva
assumes Var¸¡dhvan as His
skin; pad¡dhvan as His head; tattv¡dhvan
as His heart; bhuvan¡dhvan as
His body-hairs; mantr¡dhvan as His
blood, semen, marrow, bone, etc. and kal¡dhvan
as His entire limbs. The Maku¶¡gama
cosnlic-cum-alllorphic form is the very basis of temple rituals. Of these
six adhvans, kal¡dhvan is the foremost and dominating one because all other
remain, included and pervaded by this kal¡dhvan.Kal¡dhvan is constituted of five kal¡s; tattv¡dhvan comprises
thirty-six principles; bhuvan¡dhvan
consists of two hundred and twenty-four
bhuvanas; var¸¡dhvan consists of fifty-one letters; pad¡dhvan consists of eighty-one words of esoteric significance;
and mantradhvan consists of eleven mantras, specifically known saÆhit¡mantras.
The gross elements (mah¡bh£tas)
are characterized by these adhvans
and this characterization establishes the correspondence between the
gross elements and the adhvan
form of Lord áiva. All the ritualistic activities concerned with the adhvan
form have their direct interaction with the gross elements.
understanding of kal¡dhvan is
essential in order to comprehend the significance of
form of Lord áiva.
Niv¤tti, pratiÀ¶h¡, vidy¡¿¡nti and á¡ntyat¢ta
are the five kal¡s, each one
pervaded by the succeeding one. á¡ntyat¢ta
kal¡ remains unpervaded and ultimate and it is known as primal space (param¡k¡¿a) which gives rise to the emergence of
¿abda papaµca and artha prapancha. Each kal¡
includes in itself the constituents of other
adhvans as has been shown pictorially (see the diagram1).
áiva manifests Himself in the form of earth, water, fire, air, space,
sun, moon and individual self. Since earth, water, fire, air and spce are
the last five principles in the metaphysical scheme of áaivism and since
sun and moon are also considered to be the resultant products of the taijasca aspect, of certain tattvas,
it becomes obvious that the aÀ¶a-m£rti
form is directly related to tattv¡dhvan.
Characteristics of the Gross
things are the purposeful modifications of the pure and impeccable áiva.
The term ¿iva itself denotes
absolute and unsullied purity. The V¡tul¡gama
all things are to be realized as the modifications of Pure Being, the
presence of inertness in the worldly objects and creations is made to
vanish during the course of visualizing them through the process of
contemplation and synthesis. The scriptures train our mind to look at the
worldly objects not as endowed with inertness but as supercharged with
Ch¡ndogya UpaniÀad (VI.4.4)
teaches us how to look at the sun as composed of three primal forms:
"Whatever red form the sun has, it is the form of heat, whatever is
white, it is the form of water and whatever is dark, it is the form of
earth. Thus vanishes the quality of the sun from the sun, the modification
being only a name arising from common parlance, while the
truth is, that it is of only three forms." " They knew that
whatever appeared unintelligible is a combination of just these three
divinities (of fire, water and earth)." (VI.4.7)
this view in mind, let us now proceed to know the characteristics of the
gross elements as set forth in the Ëgamas.
Each gross element has a particular form, pertinent. symbol and colour.
Each gross element is potentialized by a particular letter, activized by a
deity and controlled by a supreme Lord.
Each gross element is related to each one of the five kal¡s
as shown here under:
should be noted here that earth itself is not niv¤tti Kal¡ (as some of the modern scholars of áiva
áiddh¡nta have explained). The gross elements are not to be equated
or identified with paµca-kal¡s. The gross elements are functioning regularly as
pervaded and induced by paµca-kal¡s.
Concordance and Discordance
between the Gross Elements
process of purification of the body characterized by the five gross
elements, one has to realize the concordance, discordance and neutralism
existing between the gross elements. These three modes are denoted by the
terms mitratva, v¤ddhatva and madhyastha,
nature of concordance exists (i) between earth and water and (ii) between
fire and air.
nature of discordance exists (i) between earth and air, and (ii)
between water and fire.
nature of neither concordance nor discordance exists (i) between earth and
fire, and (ii) between water and air.
only element left out in this analysis is space. Since the space (bh£t¡k¡¿a)
is the principle of accomodation and since it gives room for the movement
and existence of all objects, space is in concodance(mitra
svabh¡va) with the other elements.
Nirmalama¸i De¿ika, the celebrated commentator on the D¢kÀ¡ Vidhi (kriy¡madyotik¡)
of Aghorasivacarya explains this theory of concordance and discordance
Pervasion of the Gross Elements through AÀ¶a-m£rti
conceptual form known as AÀ¶a-m£rti,
Lord áiva assumes different forms and names.
The gross elements are elevated to the higher realms of metaphysical
principles by áarva
Bhava up to kal¡
Bhava up to kal¡
Pa¿upati up to ¿udha vidy¡
Pa¿upati up to ¿udha vidy¡
32. ¿uddha vidy¡.
by Ì¿¡na up to ¿ivatattva
by Ì¿¡na up to ¿ivatattva
by Bh¢ma up to ¿ivatattva
by Bh¢ma up to ¿ivatattva
individual self, though it is bodily confined to impure m¡y¡, is capable of being in touch with the principles of mixed
and pure planes only through the grace of Lord áiva, who manifests
Himself as áarva, Bhva, Pa¿upati, Ì¿¡na and Bh¢ma correspondent to
earth, water, fire, air and space rcspectively.
Gross Elements and Letters
already been stated that each gross element gets potentialized by a
parcular letter. Apart from this, the V¡tul¡gama
provides an interesting classification of m¡t¤k¡-akÀaras
in relation to the five gross element.
Letters belonging to p¤thivi varga
kÀa, la, ha, sa, Àa, ¿a, va, la, ,ra, ya
Letters belonging to jala varga (water)
ma, bha, ba, pha, pa, na, dha, da, tha, ta (10)
Letters belonging to vahni varga
¸a, ·ha, ·a, ¶ha, ¶a, µa, jha, ja, cha, ca
Letters belonging to v¡yu varga (air)
´a, gha, ga, kha, ka, aÅ, aÆ, au, o, ai,
Le!ters belonging to vyogm varga
e, ½, ½, ¤, £, u, ¢, i,
vowels are shared by the gross elements as follows:
aÅ, aÆ, au
«, ½, ¼, ¼
£, u, ¢
i, ¡, a
of these classifications, the V¡tul¡gam
patiates the supremacy of the letter ha
and of the space over the other letters and elements.
That is why the sound of ha gets
associated with most of the mantras during the ritualistic processes. The
science of space, as dealt with in the
áaiv¡gamas has not yet been accorded due attention and diligent
Elements and the Forms of S¡d¡khya
has already been made about four forms of s¡d¡khya.
S¡d¡khya is the name applied to Lord áiva when he assumes the state
of adhik¡ra at the plane called
s¡d¡khya, the third principle
in the process of evolution.
Owing to his boundless compassion towards the bound souls, Lord áiva
gradually comes down to the lower planes of evolution and assumes various
forms corresponding to the nature of the planes (See the diagram 2).
the point of implosion, par¡sakti,
also known as ¿¡ntyat¢ta, the
primal energy inseparable from áiva, releases one-tenth of her force or
power and this force assumes the form known as, áiva S¡d¡khya.
This form is very subtle, flashing forth like a lightning in the sky.
It presents itself as the most effulgent form. This form is the source of
Ëdi¿akti, also known as ¿¡nti,
who manifests as one-thousandth part of Par¡¿akti,
releases one-tenth of her force and this force assumes the form known
as Am£rti S¡d¡khya. This is in the form of li´ga with an effulgence of one crore of suns (s£rya). This linga form is also known as jyotistambha divya linga and m£lastambha.
also known as vidy¡, who
manifests as one-thousandth part of Ëdi¿akti,
releases one-tenth of her force and this force assumes the form known
as M£rti S¡d¡khya. Only at this stage, áiva assumes a form endowed
with one face, three eyes, four hands and feet.
also known as niv¤tti, who
manifests herself as one-thousandth part of icch¡¿akti,
releases one-tenth of her force and this force and this force assumes the form known as Kart¤
S¡d¡khya. At lhis stage, áiva's form
becomes endowed with four faces, twelve eyes, eight arms and two feet.
Kriy¡¿akti, also known as nivertti, who manifests herself as
one-thousandth part of jµ¡na¿akti
releases one-tenth of her force and this force assumes the form known as
Karma S¡d¡khya. Only at this stage áiva, manifests Himself in Sad¡¿iva
form having five faces, ten arms and two feet. Only this Karma á¡d¡khya is to be represented as the combination of li´ga
explained in detail all these manifestations, the V¡tul¡gama succinctly states (1.67-69):
li´ga p¢¶hak¡re¸a karma s¡d¡hkhya lakÀa¸am
n¡daÆ l´gam iti jµeyaÆ bindup¢¶hamud¡h¤tam
n¡dabinduyutaÆ r£paÆ li´g¡k¡ram iti sm¤tam
catv¡ri kart¤ r£p¡¸i kevalaÆ n¡dam¢ritam
form typifies the principle of causal and primal sound and the p¢¶ha
typifies the principle bindu,
the point of cosmic evolution and involution. áivali´ga is the
structural forms of the combination of
n¡da and bindu. The four
forms of kart¤, m£rti, am£rti
and áiva s¡d¡khyas are representative of n¡da principle only. (They
are not associated with the p¢¶ha portion;
they are not to be iconographized).
fifth s¡d¡khya, namely, karma
s¡d¡khya is installed and consecrated in the sanctum,
sanctorum of a temple. Karma s¡d¡khya
which also becomes known as áad¡¿iva
m£rti is endowed with five faces - Ì¿¡na, TatpuruÀa, Aghora, V¡madeva
and Sadyoj¡ta, each one associated with particular form, colour and
0f these, Sadyoj¡ta, facing west is directly related to niv¤tti kal¡ and indirectly related to the sphere earth (p¤thiv¢
ma¸·ala); V¡madeva facing north is directly related to pratiÀ¶th¡
kal¡ and indirectly related to the realm of water; Aghora facing
south is directly related to vidy¡
kal¡ and indirectly related to the realm of fire; TatpuruÀa facing
east is directly related to ¿¡nti
kal¡ and indirectly related to the realm of air; and Ì¿¡na
facing upwards is directly related to
¿¡ntyat¢ta kala and indirectly related to the
ma¸¶ala of space.
states that p¤thiv¢ from sadyoj¡ta and niv¤tti kal¡
arises from p¤thiv¢ and all other gross elements water, fire, air, and space,
having evolved from V¡ma, Aghora, TatpuruÀa and Ì¿¡na, give rise to pratiÀ¶h¡,
vidy¡, ¿¡nti and ¿¡ntyat¢ta respectively.(I.10.15)
concept may seem to be discordant with the Ëgamic theory of paµcakal¡ and
paµcabh£ta. But in reality,
there does not prevail any contradiction between these theories. What the B¤hajj¡b¡lopaniÀad
sets forth is the theory of bimba
and pratibimba. This is
explained as follows:
|No.||Primal source||Primary emnation||
Cosmic cow (product of reflection
The five cosmic cows symbolize purification,
nourishment and totality of divinities. The ultimate source for these
emanations is karma s¡s¡khya or Sad¡¿iva.
process of manifestation, Lord áiva
appears himself as Mahe¿vara as one-thousandth part of karma s¡d¡khya and according to the needs and necessities, Mahe¿vara
assumes twenty-five forms known as Mhe¿vara m£rtis.
ritualistic process of ¿iv¡rcana,
Lord Siva is invoked and installed on a mystic pedestal known as ¿iv¡asana
which itself is constituted of five asanas known as anant¡sana,
padm¡sana and vimal¡sana. Each ¡sana,
with an attributed form represents a gross element.
In the process of invocation (¡v¡hana)
Lord áiva is contemplated as seated on Yog¡sana.
In the process of holy bath (abhiÀeka)
he is konkmplated as seated on siÆh¡sna.
In the process of offering of flowers (arcana)
he is meditated upon as seated on
In the process of offerings (naivedya)
he is meditated upon as seated on vimal¡sana.
(v) In the process of praising singing and dancing, he is contemplated upon as seated on anant¡sana.
each asana is composed of a tattva
or a group of tattvas and on the whole ¿iv¡sana
is nothing but a mystic pedestal composed of thirty-six principles (tattvas).
The p¢¶ha part of ¿ivali´ga
is to be indentified wih ¿iv¡sana.
an image is duly istalled in a temple, it is imputed with lthe consmic
force through the process of ny¡sa.
The five gross elements are identified with the lower portion of
construction is to strictly based on v¡stu
puruÀa-ma¸·ala. Longevity, auspiciousness, strength and beauty
could be accomplished to any construction only through v¡stuma¸·ala. Satish Grover seems too harsh in commenting that in
the V¡stu¿¡stras there is much that is deliberate esoteric mumbo-jumbo.
He has utterly failed to realize the intrinsic validity and
significance of the vastu puruÀa-ma¸·ala,
the confluence of cosmic forces.
Needless to mention that temple construction is
based on v¡stuma¸·ala. Y¡ga¿¡l¡s also are constructed at the time of consecration and
of other auspicious function based on
v¡stuma¸·ala (either ma¸·uka or parama¿¡yi).
represents both adhvan form and aÀ¶a-m£rti
form of Lord áiva.
ár¢ Paµc¡kÀara yogin, the author of áaiva-Bh£Àa¸a states
that the term ma¸¶apa itself denotes the presence of five gross
elements- ma meaning earth, ¸a meaning water, ¶a meaning
fire, pa meaning air and m
(mak¡ra and bindu) meaning space.
The eight fire-pits constructed inside y¡ga
ma¸¶apa represent the eight forms of Lord áiva.
entire space covered by the y¡ga ma¸¶apa
represents the supreme kal¡,namely
¿¡ntyat¢ta, the entrance in
the east-¿¡ntikal¡; and the
entrance in the south- vidy¡kal¡;
the entrance in the west- pratiÀ¶h¡kal¡;and
the entrance in the north-niv¤ttikal¡
(Here again,confusion is to be avoided. Bassically, niv¤tti (sadyoj¡ta) is always to be ideated so as to be in the
west and pratiÀ¶¡, to be in
the north. Here they are
interchanged to effect interaction and interplay between the gross
are related to paµca-bh£tas,
it becomes evident that the gross element are represented by the
Gross Elements and the Fire-pits (ku¸·as)
the y¡ga maa¸¶apa, nine
fire-pits are to be constructed along the
m¡nuÀapada of the v¡stu ma¸·ala,
four in the main directions, four in the intermediate directions and the
one (pradh¡na ku¸·a) between
east and north-east.
(i) The fire-pit in the form of a square which is in the east represents earth.
The fire-pit in the form of a circle which is in the west represents
The fire-pit in the form of a yoni
which is in the south-east represents fire.
The fire-pit in the form of a hexagon which is in the north-west
(v) The fire-pit in the form of an octagonal which is in the north-east rep-resents space.
again, it is to be noticed that the forms related to the gross elements
get altered except the element air.)
other details, see the diagram (4).
Gross Elements and the Ma¸·alas
With an emphasis on certainty, it can rightly be claimed that the most aesthetic aspect of Indian rituals is mandala. Almost all religious systems of India are employing mandala as a device in their ritualistic activities. In fact, in Bud-dhism, the science of mystic device - mandala- has become the main core.
an artistic device, ma¸·ala
incorporates in itself all the significant aspects of symbols, sounds,
forms, colours and divinities, with a stronghold on metaphysical and
ontological principles. The Ëgamas
excel all other scriptures with their elaborate and effective details and
descriptions of various ma¸·alas.
In the Saivagamic group, the Kira¸¡gama
is held in high esteem owing to its copious details and directions on the
mechanism of ma¸·alas. Besides its separate chapter on ma¸·ala-vidhi it prescribes vaktra-ma¸·ala
for the worship of Sarasvat¢ and kala¿a-ma¸·ala
for the worship of Lord M¤tyuµjaya, the details of which are not to be
seen in any other Ëgama.
Ma¸·ala is an aesthetic and mystic design in which the combination and in-tersection
of various forms related to the gross elements and to the deities
concerned have their full play. The correspondence of colours, the
distribution of letters (m¡t¤k¡-akÀaras)
and the esoteric significance enhance the mystic value of ma¸·alas. Each ma¸·ala
has its own principal deity and attendant deities directly or indirectely
related to the five gross elements. So the rituals which involve
ma¸·ala-p£j¡ are highly efficacious in energizing and sanctifying
the environment conditions by the gross elements. Because of such
importance, the áaiv¡gamas have specifically set forth the details of ma¸·ala-worship
in connection worth monthly festival.
In the month of meÀa (Aprill-May), sarvatpbhadra-ma¸·ala should lbe worshipped.
In the month of b¤Àabha (May-June), svastika-ma¸·ala.
In the month of mithuna (June-July), navan¡bha-ma¤·ala.
In the month of karka¶a (July-August), sarvatobhadra-mandala.
In the month of siÆha (August-September), sv¡yambhuva-ma¸·ala.
In the month of kany¡ (Setember-October), subhadr¡-mandala.
In the month of tul¡ (October-November), gaur¢lat¡-ma¸·ala.
In the month of v¤Àcika (November-December), sarvatobhadra-ma¸·ala.
In the month of dhanu (December-January), svastika-ma¸·ala.
In the month of makara (January-February), um¡k¡nta-ma¸·ala.
In the month of kumbha (February-March), padma-ma¸·ala.
In the month of m¢na (Maarch-April), svastika-ma¸·ala.
from these, there are numerous ma¸·alas
such as anata vijaya ¶a´ka, pr¡k¡ra,
Ëgamic texts, it has been declared that square is the basis for both,
fire-pits(ku¸·as) and ma¸·alas.
symbolism and correspondence of colour is the essential aspect of
ma¸·ala Ëc¡rya or up¡saka is to
be acquainted with the infallible knowledge of colour correspondence. In
the science of ma¸·ala, white
represents water, k¤ta yuga,
sattvagu¸a, buddhi tattva; red represents fire, tret¡
yuga, rajugu¸a, kal¡ tattva; black represents air, dv¡para yuga, tamogu¸a, niyati tattva; yellow (gold) represents
earth, kali yuga, ¿uddha vidy¡
tattva; pure crystal represents space,
ovynkia tattva and áiva tattva.
other details of ma¸·ala see
the diagram (5).
Inside the y¡gama¸¶apa, especially at, brahma-sth¡na, the main altar (vedik¡) is to be constructed. At bottom part of vedik¡ and upavedik¡ is to be made. On the surface of the main altar (vedik¡), paddy, rice, sesamum, parched-rice and other grains are to be placed in order.
arranged in this pattern, the vedik¡
becomes representative of ¿iv¡sana
which includes in itself five ¡sanas
as has already been explained.
which is placed on the grains represents Lord áiva.
(XX.259) lays down the rule that in the fourth quarter (y¡ma)
of the night, the great ¿abdas should
be made with ¿a´kha and dundubhi.
The K¡ra¸¡gama also enjoins that the five great causal sounds should
be made at the termination of night. The five great causal sounds are
related to the five gross elements.
born of wooden instruments (d¡ruja)
born of conch (¿a´kha)
born of metal instruments (lohaja)
born of flute, etc. (vaÆ¿a)
born of songs (geya)
r¡tr¡ntake vi¿eÀe¸a sarvadaivapriy¡rthakam II
kury¡t-paµcamah¡¿adbÆ tato' ¿ubha niv¤ttaye I
d¡rujaÆ p¤thv¢ j¡taÆ ¿aÆkhajaÆ vaÆ¿ajaÆ II
geyaÆ gaganaj¡taÆ sy¡t paµcaite ¿abda ucyate I
five causal sounds related to the gross elements are to be sounded to ward
off inauspiciousness and to please all the deities.
are sixteen kinds of upac¡ras offered
to the Lord at the end of p£j¡-
process These upac¡ras are
classified into five in relation to the five gross elements. In the course
of these upac¡ras, the
fourteenth is geya or music and
the fifteenth is dance (n¤tya).
These two are related to the space element. Just as there is no greater
element than space so also there is no
upac¡ra more effective and auspicious than music and dance. The Ëgamic
scriptures prescribed particular r¡gas
for the particular r¡gas
divisions of a day.
In the early morning, songs set on g¡ndh¡ra r¡ga
In the next division, songs set on m¡lava r¡ga
In the midday, songs set on takka r¡ga
In the next division, songs set on kau¿ika
In the evening, songs set on indola
In the night, songs set on paµcama
songs should be followed by n¤tya as
enjoined in Bharata's N¡¶ya-á¡stra.
following varieties of n¤tya and
their appropriate time and place of performance are mentioned in the Ëgamas.
samap¡ta, bhuja´ga, ma¸·ala, da¸·apada
bhujarigatr¡sa, kunµcita, bhuja´ga lalita.
(from bhuja´ga to £vdhvapada - from east to north east)
Here we see how the Temple rituals give rise to aesthetic and fine arts. Impressed by the early and significant development of ritual behaviour in Greek life, Jane Harrison concludes that art had its origin only in rituals. This theory is equally applicable to Indian Arts also.
way in which the gross elements have been explained and inter-related in
the Ëgamas, seems to be unique
and significant. In order to restructure ourselves, we are trained to
destructure the gross elements in such a way as to look at them as not,
invested with inertness but as invested with divinity and as charged with
symbols, colours and sounds. All the ritualistic activities have their direct effect on the
gross elements. The study of Ëgamas
and áilpa-¿¡stras is sure to award the reader with a sound
knowledge of the interaction between the rituals, images and the elements.
The five lotuses in different colours represents the five elements.
 This sort of conceptual form, designed for meditation
alone, figures largely in Buddhism also. "Instead of multiplying
and projecting Buddha inmges, the goal of the adept is often to
'visualize' them" - W.Randolph Kloetzli, Buddhist
Cosmology (Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass 1989) p. 107.
example, see the Padma-Savhita and the ár¢
Pra¿na-SaÆhit¡ They postulate
dealing with time and its fractions, omitting the
. There are some references in the vedas to this adhvan
concept. "Adhvan¡Æ pataye
namo namaÅ" "Path¢n¡Æ
pataye namaÅ", etc., occurring in the Rudr¡dhy¡ya
of the Yajur-Veda refer to
See K¡mika Ëgama,
The rationale behind the correspondence between the gross elements and their form, symbol, colour etc., has been explained in my commentary on the u¸mai vilakkam.
. For further details with regard to the descriptions of
the forms of áarva, Bhava, see the
works PratiÀ¶ha AÀ¶¡da¿a
Kriy¡v¡li and the áivali´ga
PrtiÀ¶h¡ Vidhi of Aghora¿iv¡c¡rya.
See the Siddh¡nta
. See the V¡tul¡gama,
Ch. 2 and Ch.4.
. Ibid., IV.22-30
for the varied theories of relationship between the gross elements and
the letters, proposed in the system of Kashmir áaivism, see
Laya, bhoga and adhik¡ra are the three states assumed by Lord áiva; the laya
state corresponds to ¿ivatattva, bhoga state corresponds to ¿aktitattva
and adhik¡ra state
corresponds to s¡d¡khya or sad¡¿iva tattva. For Further details see the PauÀkar¡gama, M¤gendr¡gama and
Mata´ga P¡rame¿vara Ëgama.
. For other details, descriptions, and significant
meanings, see the patipa¶ala of
the PauÀkar¡gama and of
 The B¤hajj¡lopaniÀad, 1.10-15 and also the PaµcabrahmoniÀad, 5-21.
For further details of 25 forms, see the V¡tul¡gama,
Sa´graha, p. 81.
. K¡ra¸a Ëgama,
Anant¡sana which is in the form of triangle represents earth. But,
we have already seen that earth is represented by a square ma¸·ala. These theories are not to be confused. These are to be
understood against the background of esoteric significance.
Grover, The Architecture of
Indian Buddhist and Hindu, New
Delhi: Vikas Publishing House, 1980 p. 172.
 See the áaiva-Bh£Àa¸a of Paµc¡kÀara yogi, verse, 192
Ibid., verse, 229.
See the K¡ra¸¡gama,
See the Mahotsavavidhi
©1995 Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts, New Delhi