|Aqeedat Ke Rang|
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Aqeedat Ke Rang: Expression
of Devotions in Islam
The tradition of oral
transmission in Islam can be traced back to the concept of wahi. Quranic
verses were revealed to The Prophet through Jibrail, the messenger angel
of God, through the word of mouth and certain other ways such as: Roya-e-sadiqua
(revelation through true dreams) and salsalutul jaras (sound of
ringing bells) and direct dialogue with God (known as manajat).
The Prophet conveyed and spread these verses to the masses through
oral recitation. The Quran was compiled in a book form as available today
during the time of the caliphs starting from the first pious Caliph.
Another oral tradition is that of Hadith, which contains advice and
solutions to the day today problems of the people provided by The Prophet
to his followers.
Oral transmission of the
Quran by the Hafiz, the traditional reciter is another significant
institution which has played a great role in the spread of Islam. Hafiz
memorises (hifz), the verses and renders them verbatim.
The process of oral rendition of Qu'ran is called q'irat.
There are different styles of qirat called qirat-e-saba.
Qirat used to have some regional variations also.
During the month of Ramadan
there is a tradition of reciting the Quran in mosques after the Isha
prayer (night prayer). This is called taravih. In taravih
the entire Quran is recited within the period beginning with the
visibility of moon of Ramzan and ending with the visibility of moon
announcing the festival of Id-ul-Fitr.
Apart from qirat,
oral rendition of devotional poetry is also very strong in Islam.
Various literary forms such as hamd (poetry in praise of
Almighty God), na’at in praise of the Prophet) manquabat
(poetry in praise of the family of the Prophet, his companions, associates
and other religious figures) are very popular.
Marsia is a form of lament poetry which came to be mostly
associated with Mercias of the memory of tragic happenings of Karbala.
This poetry acquired an indigenous hue in India. It became a strong
metaphor against exploitation, dictatorship and misrule. Indian poets used
local linguistic idioms and symbols to bring out the pathos in the poetry.
This syncretism gave rise to dahe in Awadhi, ashurkhana in
Deccani, kabad in Panjabi. etc.
The seminar will also
look at different styles of recitation such as sozkhani. Different
literary forms like Mercia, Salam, Manqabat, Noha, Qasida etc. are
recited in this style. Influence of local traditions also impacted the
style of recitation e.g. Darud Khawani and Award Khawani in
Kashmir, which clearly demonstrates the subtle impact of the Buddhist
Next comes the tradition
of devotional music which in the Sufi parlance is called Samah.
Some forms of that need mention here are qual and Quawali,
manajat, baulgiti and nazrulgiti of Bengal and Chaharbait
from Tonk and Rampur. Women have played a great role in preserving the
tradition of oral recitation in Islam. Forms such as milad Khawani,
Salam, dua, Qasida and zikr will be in focus here. Zikr is a
form through which one remembers Almighty Allah and the in the
Darud Khawani the Prophet is eulogized individually and in a group
respectively. The form of zikr and as well as darud Khawani
varies from region to region.
Among the Shia Muslims
the tradition of kahani also present us with interesting
syncreticism of classical forms with the indigenous tradition.
Koshkol songs sung by Takiya Faquirs are another important
dimension of folk music. Quissa goi, though not religious in character, is also an
important part of Islamic culture in India and the workshop will include
this as well in its ambit.
In order to project
different colours of devotion and dedication in Islam, with special
reference to its Indian rootedness, the IGNCA is organizing a three-day
The workshop has been
divided into four broad themes:
presentation by scholars, this festival aims to bring together a plethora
of performances by professional, amateurs and household groups during each
Also an exhibition on culture and religious tradition in Islam will be organized during the seminar.
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